Special refractories for use at high temperature - NIST Page. such as the stability of the refractory at the higher temperatures, the mlt; available for forming and firing of crucibles, the type of melting furnace, chemical action of .. this may be done by supporting them on a tungsten or molybdenum sheet or a polished brass rod,slightly tapered, and rounded at the smallend is used as a
Thus, heat exchanger network design comes next. Those heating and cooling duties that cannot be satisﬁed by heat recovery, dictate the need for external heating and cooling utilities (furnace heating, use of steam, steam generation, cooling water, air-cooling or refrigeration). Thus, utility selection and design follows the design of the heat
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S.M. Olhero, F.L. Alves and J.M.F. Ferreira (August 9th 2011). Last Advances in Aqueous Processing of Aluminium Nitride (AlN) - A Review, Advances in Ceramics - Synthesis and Characterization, Processing and Specific Applications, Costas Sikalidis, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/17210. Available from:
The invention is directed to calcium fluoride crystal optics with improved laser durability that can be used for the transmission of below 250 nanometer (nm) electromagnetic radiation. The optics consist of CaF2 as the major component and, in one embodiment, at least one dopant/amount selected gt;0.3-1200 ppm Mg, gt;0.3-200 ppm Sr, gt;0.3-200 ppm Ba, while Ce and Mn are lt;0.5 ppm.
When the temperature is rose from 400°C to 600°C, the average size of YF 3 submicron-crystals with better dispersity is grown to about 300~400 nm and presents quasi-spherical morphology (Fig. 4b), as the process of "(1) Growing". When the temperature reaches 800°C, due to oxygen atoms join in the crystal formation and growth, the
The historic nanoprobe: Ca 0.2 Zn 0.9 Mg 0.9 Si 2 O 6 doped with Eu 2+, Dy 3+ and Mn 2+. In 2003, Wang et al reported the persistent luminescence properties of different materials (aluminate, silicates) doped with luminescent ions 40.Among them a silicate doped with Eu 2+, Dy 3+ and Mn 2+ had interesting optical properties for bioimaging in term of emission wavelength but couldn't directly be